Erasure By Usage Analysis

This work stems from this feature proposal (obsoleted by this page). Beware that the information in the proposal is out of date — and sometimes even in direct contradiction with the eventual implementation.


Traditional dependently typed languages (Agda, Coq) are good at erasing proofs (either via irrelevance or an extra universe).

half : (n : Nat) -> Even n -> Nat
half Z EZ = Z
half (S (S n)) (ES pf) = S (half n pf)

For example, in the above snippet, the second argument is a proof, which is used only to convince the compiler that the function is total. This proof is never inspected at runtime and thus can be erased. In this case, the mere existence of the proof is sufficient and we can use irrelevance-related methods to achieve erasure.

However, sometimes we want to erase indices and this is where the traditional approaches stop being useful, mainly for reasons described in the original proposal.

uninterleave : {n : Nat} -> Vect (n * 2) a -> (Vect n a, Vect n a)
uninterleave [] = ([] , [])
uninterleave (x :: y :: rest) with (unzipPairs rest)
  | (xs, ys) = (x :: xs, y :: ys)

Notice that in this case, the second argument is the important one and we would like to get rid of the n instead, although the shape of the program is generally the same as in the previous case.

There are methods described by Brady, McBride and McKinna in [BMM04] to remove the indices from data structures, exploiting the fact that functions operating on them either already have a copy of the appropriate index or the index can be quickly reconstructed if needed. However, we often want to erase the indices altogether, from the whole program, even in those cases where reconstruction is not possible.

The following two sections describe two cases where doing so improves the runtime performance asymptotically.

Binary numbers

  • O(n) instead of O(log n)

Consider the following Nat-indexed type family representing binary numbers:

data Bin : Nat -> Type where
  N : Bin 0
  O : {n : Nat} -> Bin n -> Bin (0 + 2*n)
  I : {n : Nat} -> Bin n -> Bin (1 + 2*n)

These are supposed to be (at least asymptotically) fast and memory-efficient because their size is logarithmic compared to the numbers they represent.

Unfortunately this is not the case. The problem is that these binary numbers still carry the unary indices with them, performing arithmetic on the indices whenever arithmetic is done on the binary numbers themselves. Hence the real representation of the number 15 looks like this:

I -> I -> I -> I -> N
S    S    S    Z
S    S    Z
S    S
S    Z

The used memory is actually linear, not logarithmic and therefore we cannot get below O(n) with time complexities.

One could argue that Idris in fact compiles Nat via GMP but that’s a moot point for two reasons:

  • First, whenever we try to index our datastructures with anything else than Nat, the compiler is not going to come to the rescue.
  • Second, even with Nat, the GMP integers are still there and they slow the runtime down.

This ought not to be the case since the Nat are never used at runtime and they are only there for typechecking purposes. Hence we should get rid of them and get runtime code similar to what a idris programmer would write.

U-views of lists

  • O(n^2) instead of O(n)

Consider the type of U-views of lists:

data U : List a -> Type where
  nil : U []
  one : (z : a) -> U [z]
  two : {xs : List a} -> (x : a) -> (u : U xs) -> (y : a) -> U (x :: xs ++ [y])

For better intuition, the shape of the U-view of [x0,x1,x2,z,y2,y1,y0] looks like this:

x0   y0    (two)
x1   y1    (two)
x2   y1    (two)
   z       (one)

When recursing over this structure, the values of xs range over [x0,x1,x2,z,y2,y1,y0], [x1,x2,z,y2,y1], [x2,z,y2], [z]. No matter whether these lists are stored or built on demand, they take up a quadratic amount of memory (because they cannot share nodes), and hence it takes a quadratic amount of time just to build values of this index alone.

But the reasonable expectation is that operations with U-views take linear time — so we need to erase the index xs if we want to achieve this goal.

Changes to Idris

Usage analysis is run at every compilation and its outputs are used for various purposes. This is actually invisible to the user but it’s a relatively big and important change, which enables the new features.

Everything that is found to be unused is erased. No annotations are needed, just don’t use the thing and it will vanish from the generated code. However, if you wish, you can use the dot annotations to get a warning if the thing is accidentally used.

“Being used” in this context means that the value of the “thing” may influence run-time behaviour of the program. (More precisely, it is not found to be irrelevant to the run-time behaviour by the usage analysis algorithm.)

“Things” considered for removal by erasure include:

  • function arguments
  • data constructor fields (including record fields and dictionary fields of class instances)

For example, Either often compiles to the same runtime representation as Bool. Constructor field removal sometimes combines with the newtype optimisation to have quite a strong effect.

There is a new compiler option --warnreach, which will enable warnings coming from erasure. Since we have full usage analysis, we can compile even those programs that violate erasure annotations – it’s just that the binaries may run slower than expected. The warnings will be enabled by default in future versions of Idris (and possibly turned to errors). However, in this transitional period, we chose to keep them on-demand to avoid confusion until better documentation is written.

Case-tree elaboration tries to avoid using dotted “things” whenever possible. (NB. This is not yet perfect and it’s being worked on:

Postulates are no longer required to be collapsible. They are now required to be unused instead.

Changes to the language

You can use dots to mark fields that are not intended to be used at runtime.

data Bin : Nat -> Type where
  N : Bin 0
  O : .{n : Nat} -> Bin n -> Bin (0 + 2*n)
  I : .{n : Nat} -> Bin n -> Bin (1 + 2*n)

If these fields are found to be used at runtime, the dots will trigger a warning (with --warnreach).

Note that free (unbound) implicits are dotted by default so, for example, the constructor O can be defined as:

O : Bin n -> Bin (0 + 2*n)

and this is actually the preferred form.

If you have a free implicit which is meant to be used at runtime, you have to change it into an (undotted) {bound : implicit}.

You can also put dots in types of functions to get more guarantees.

half : (n : Nat) -> .(pf : Even n) -> Nat

and free implicits are automatically dotted here, too.

What it means

Dot annotations serve two purposes:

  • influence case-tree elaboration to avoid dotted variables
  • trigger warnings when a dotted variable is used

However, there’s no direct connection between being dotted and being erased. The compiler erases everything it can, dotted or not. The dots are there mainly to help the programmer (and the compiler) refrain from using the values they want to erase.

How to use it

Ideally, few or no extra annotations are needed – in practice, it turns out that having free implicits automatically dotted is enough to get good erasure.

Therefore, just compile with --warnreach to see warnings if erasure cannot remove parts of the program.

However, those programs that have been written without runtime behaviour in mind, will need some help to get in the form that compiles to a reasonable binary. Generally, it’s sufficient to follow erasure warnings (which may be sometimes unhelpful at the moment).


It can be clearly seen that asymptotics are improved by erasure.


You can’t get warnings in libraries because usage analysis starts from Main.main. This will be solved by the planned %default_usage pragma.

Usage warnings are quite bad and unhelpful at the moment. We should include more information and at least translate argument numbers to their names.

There is no decent documentation yet. This wiki page is the first one.

There is no generally accepted terminology. We switch between “dotted”, “unused”, “erased”, “irrelevant”, “inaccessible”, while each has a slightly different meaning. We need more consistent and understandable naming.

If the same type is used in both erased and non-erased context, it will retain its fields to accomodate the least common denominator – the non-erased context. This is particularly troublesome in the case of the type of (dependent) pairs, where it actually means that no erasure would be performed. We should probably locate disjoint uses of data types and split them into “sub-types”. There are three different flavours of dependent types now: Sigma (nothing erased), Exists (first component erased), Subset (second component erased).

Case-tree building does not avoid dotted values coming from pattern-matched constructors ( This is to be fixed soon. (Fixed.)

Higher-order function arguments and opaque functional variables are considered to be using all their arguments. To work around this, you can force erasure via the type system, using the Erased wrapper:

Typeclass methods are considered to be using the union of all their implementations. In other words, an argument of a method is unused only if it is unused in every implementation of the method that occurs in the program.

Planned features

  • Fixes to the above shortcomings in general.

  • Improvements to the case-tree elaborator so that it properly avoids

    dotted fields of data constructors. Done.

  • Compiler pragma %default_usage used/unused and per-function

    overrides used and unused, which allow the programmer to mark the return value of a function as used, even if the function is not used in main (which is the case when writing library code). These annotations will help library writers discover usage violations in their code before it is actually published and used in compiled programs.


My program is slower

The patch introducing erasure by usage analysis also disabled some optimisations that were in place before; these are subsumed by the new erasure. However, in some erasure-unaware programs, where erasure by usage analysis does not exercise its full potential (but the old optimisations would have worked), certain slowdown may be observed (up to ~10% according to preliminary benchmarking), due to retention and computation of information that should not be necessary at runtime.

A simple check whether this is the case is to compile with --warnreach. If you see warnings, there is some unnecessary code getting compiled into the binary.

The solution is to change the code so that there are no warnings.

Usage warnings are unhelpful

This is a known issue and we are working on it. For now, see the section How to read and resolve erasure warnings.

There should be no warnings in this function

A possible cause is non-totality of the function (more precisely, non-coverage). If a function is non-covering, the program needs to inspect all arguments in order to detect coverage failures at runtime. Since the function inspects all its arguments, nothing can be erased and this may transitively cause usage violations. The solution is to make the function total or accept the fact that it will use its arguments and remove some dots from the appropriate constructor fields and function arguments. (Please note that this is not a shortcoming of erasure and there is nothing we can do about it.)

Another possible cause is the currently imperfect case-tree elaboration, which does not avoid dotted constructor fields (see You can either rephrase the function or wait until this is fixed, hopefully soon. Fixed.

The compiler refuses to recognise this thing as erased

You can force anything to be erased by wrapping it in the Erased monad. While this program triggers usage warnings,

f : (g : Nat -> Nat) -> .(x : Nat) -> Nat
f g x = g x  -- WARNING: g uses x

the following program does not:

f : (g : Erased Nat -> Nat) -> .(x : Nat) -> Nat
f g x = g (Erase x)  -- OK

How to read and resolve erasure warnings

Example 1

Consider the following program:

vlen : Vect n a -> Nat
vlen {n = n} xs = n

sumLengths : List (Vect n a) -> Nat
sumLengths       []  = 0
sumLengths (v :: vs) = vlen v + sumLengths vs

main : IO ()
main = print . sumLengths $ [[0,1],[2,3]]

When you compile it using --warnreach, there is one warning:

Main.sumLengths: inaccessible arguments reachable:
  n (no more information available)

The warning does not contain much detail at this point so we can try compiling with --dumpcases cases.txt and look up the compiled definition in cases.txt:

Main.sumLengths {e0} {e1} {e2} =
  case {e2} of
  | Prelude.List.::({e6}) => LPlus (ATInt ITBig)({e0}, Main.sumLengths({e0}, ____, {e6}))
  | Prelude.List.Nil() => 0

The reason for the warning is that sumLengths calls vlen, which gets inlined. The second clause of sumLengths then accesses the variable n, compiled as {e0}. Since n is a free implicit, it is automatically considered dotted and this triggers the warning.

A solution would be either making the argument n a bound implicit parameter to indicate that we wish to keep it at runtime,

sumLengths : {n : Nat} -> List (Vect n a) -> Nat

or fixing vlen to not use the index:

vlen : Vect n a -> Nat
vlen [] = Z
vlen (x :: xs) = S (vlen xs)

Which solution is appropriate depends on the usecase.

Example 2

Consider the following program manipulating value-indexed binary numbers.

data Bin : Nat -> Type where
    N : Bin Z
    O : Bin n -> Bin (0 + n + n)
    I : Bin n -> Bin (1 + n + n)

toN : (b : Bin n) -> Nat
toN  N = Z
toN (O {n} bs) = 0 + n + n
toN (I {n} bs) = 1 + n + n

main : IO ()
main = print . toN $ I (I (O (O (I N))))

In the function toN, we attempted to “cheat” and instead of traversing the whole structure, we just projected the value index n out of constructors I and O. However, this index is a free implicit, therefore it is considered dotted.

Inspecting it then produces the following warnings when compiling with --warnreach:

Main.I: inaccessible arguments reachable:
  n from Main.toN arg# 1
Main.O: inaccessible arguments reachable:
  n from Main.toN arg# 1

We can see that the argument n of both I and O is used in the function toN, argument 1.

At this stage of development, warnings only contain argument numbers, not names; this will hopefully be fixed. When numbering arguments, we go from 0, taking free implicits first, left-to-right; then the bound arguments. The function toN has therefore in fact two arguments: n (argument 0) and b (argument 1). And indeed, as the warning says, we project the dotted field from b.

Again, one solution is to fix the function toN to calculate its result honestly; the other one is to accept that we carry a Nat with every constructor of Bin and make it a bound implicit:

O : {n : Nat} -> Bin n -> Bin (0 + n + n)
I : {n : Nat} -> bin n -> Bin (1 + n + n)


[BMM04]Edwin Brady, Conor McBride, James McKinna: Inductive families need not store their indices